Dreams of an Chinese Opera 2
姜克美 赵家珍 常静 张顺翔
In 2006, the critically acclaimed recording “Dream of an Opera” was released by Rhymoi Music. Its concept was utterly unique – offering traditional Chinese Opera without Words. As one of the world’s great, intangible cultural treasures, Chinese opera is, along with Greek Tragicomedy, and Indian Sanskrit Drama one of the three most ancient forms of Drama. And yet even today, despite the easy accessibility of films, recordings and the internet, “Chinese Opera” (of which there are more than 360 varieties!) remains for many, one of the world’s last great mysteries. It was the hope of Ye Yun Chuan to offer a strikingly modern vision and give new life to this most Chinese of art forms, to liberate the timeless stories and ancient melodies from the museum and kitschy tourist traps and share them with new generations of listeners – and new fans.
The result was an international success! Listeners and reviewers, who never imagined listening to Chinese Opera and LIKING it, were captivated by the sensitive, colorful orchestrations. Meng Qing Hua’s arrangements were brought to life by some of China’s greatest living instrumental virtuosos – artists who knew the music in its original form and who through their artistry could convey the nuance of every (unsung) word - making new friends for Chinese opera around the globe.
Traditionalists may object that such an approach to Chinese opera dilutes its “purity”, that Chinese Opera without SINGING is not Chinese Opera. Or that western instruments are incapable to accurately expressing the nuance of Chinese music. For those listeners, there will always be the recordings and films of Mei Lanfang, Yan Huizhu, Ma Lianliang, but for those listeners wishing to penetrate the “mysteries” of Chinese opera, not merely as an historic artifact but as a living tradition, “Dream of an Opera” is the perfect invitation. If Bach can be played on the Guzheng, than certainly the beauty and immortal qualities of Chinese Opera can withstand the addition of a few western instruments!
And now, Ryhmoi Music, Ye Yun Chuan, and Meng Qing Hua have returned with more treasures to enchant and captivate. Discover ten new operas with ten new stories, each representing a different regional tradition - Ji, Qin, Huagu, Lu, Chao, Peking, Kun, Cantonese, Huangmei and Zhejiang Yue operas – all are here for your enjoyment.
It goes without saying that even the best performance would provide little enjoyment if poorly recorded. And so, this album continues the World-Class production standards that have earned Rhymoi a place of pride among collectors and audiophiles everywhere. Many thanks to the management of China Central Television Station (CCTV)’s 480 square meter professional studio, the distinguished engineer Li Xiao Pei, our production crew and our friends at Stockfish Studios (Germany) who contributed to our team’s post-production effort.
1. Kunqu Opera: A Jade Hairpin
Kunqu is one of the oldest extant forms of Chinese opera, dating back nearly 600 years. It originated in the city of Kunshan in Jiangsu Province and evolved from collections of melodies that were native to the region. During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Wei Liangfu, a singer in the northern style, migrated to Kunshan from Nanchang, Jiangxi Province. While performing with singers in the southern style, he adapted to the songs of Kunshan, combining them with northern singing techniques to create a new style. Kunqu was introduced to Beijing during the late Ming era, and became one of the two official forms of drama within the imperial court, and was soon a nationwide favorite. Kunqu would later become excessively formal and stylized and by the mid-Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), it gradually declined in popularity, admired only by a few dedicated aficionados. While Kunqu has experienced ups and downs in popularity, its supreme status has never been challenged and is recognized as a seminal influence in the creation of other forms of traditional opera.
Story of the Opera:
"The Jade Hairpin" was written by the Ming dynasty playwright Gao Lian. It is a love story with a happy ending telling the story of Pan Bizheng, a young scholar, and Chen Miaochang, a Taoist nun.
Pan was a promising young scholar but suffered from an illness while he prepared for the official examinations. He decides to take the exam anyhow but fails. Ashamed of his failure, he retreats to the convent where is aunt is the mother superior. There he meets Chen, a young, pretty nun. Chen came from a good family but lost everything in a war, and was forced to seek shelter in the convent. Chen had little success in suppressing her worldly passions and yearned for life and love in the world. Pan's aunt finds out about the couple’s relationship and tries to break them up by sending Pan to another official exam while keeping Chen in the convent. Pan ends up passing the exam with honors and returns to marry Chen.
2. Ji Opera: "Tao Li Mei" • “Ginseng Girl”
Ji Opera is one of the most modern forms of Chinese opera and is popular in various parts of Jilin and Liaoning, Heilongjiang provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Jiju evolved from the Errenzhuan, a form of theatre closer to vaudeville than Peking opera, incorporating dancing, singing, baton-twirling, costume changes and soliloquies. The development of Jiju came as a result of a suggestion made by Zhou Enlai in 1958 while visiting the region, that the local drama troupes should develop their own regional theater to enrich the lives of the local populace. Following the Cultural Revolution, Jiju returned to life with renewed vitality and numerous new operas were created and performed. “The Three Sisters” dates from 1979 – 1980 and is representative of the vitality of the new form. In recent times, Ji operas have received numerous awards for their innovative productions and attending a local performance is one of the highlights of visiting the region.
Story of the Operas:
Tao Li Mei tells an ancient story set during the Ming dynasty about three daughters of the Yuan family. The oldest one named Tao marries an officer, while the second daughter named Li is betrothed to her cousin, Yan. The youngest sister, Mei is very clever, and is devoted to her family. One day, a military officer meets Li and tries to force her to marry him. Mei argues her sister’s case before the local magistrate and wins the suit. Mei applies to take the imperial examination and passes her tests with flying colors. In the end, she becomes a local official, gets married and everyone lives happily ever after.
The Ginseng Girl is based on a fairy tale, that tells the story of a beautiful apprentice fairy who is caught three times by a man named Nagua. Each time he sets her free to complete her studies and become a real fairy. In the end, she returns to him and marries him after she has completed her practice.
3. Zhejiang Yue Opera: The Butterfly Lovers
Compared to the 600-year-old Kunqu Opera, Zhejiang Yue Opera, developed less than a hundred years ago, and is a comparative newcomer to the family of Chinese Opera. Zhejiang Yue originated in Shengzhou City, in Zhejiang Province. Early Zhejiang Yue Opera was performed exclusively by men but from 1923, all-women Zhejiang Yue Opera groups began to appear and became popular. All-women Yueju Opera groups gradually replaced all-men groups in the 1930s and 1940s, and the name " Zhejiang Yue " was finally adopted previously this style was known as “Luodi Changshu Diao”. In its short history, Zhejiang Yue has effectively incorporated stylistic elements from modern drama, Kunqu Opera and Western music, in an attempt to create a new performing style. The music of Zhejiang Yue Opera is characterized as being fresh, graceful and lively. The well-known violin concerto "Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai" ("Butterfly Lovers") was composed based on elements from Yueju Opera.
Story of the Opera:
The story of Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai (Butterfly Lovers) is based upon one of the most famous and beloved of all Chinese romances, that can be justifiably called the Chinese “Romeo and Juliet”. In addition to several popular Chinese operas, the story of the “Butterfly Lovers” has been used as the basis of the famous Violin Concerto by Chen Gang, several western-style musical and many films.
Set in feudal China hundreds of years ago, when marriages of love were forbidden, two young people defied societies norms and dared to fall in love. The girl, Zhu Yingtai is the daughter of a rich landlord and despite the prohibition on women receiving education, she dresses as a boy and starts her journey to attend school. On her way, she meets Liangshan Bo and they become “blood brothers.” Liang eventually finds out about Zhu’s masquerade, and they fall in love and exchange a solemn pledge of love. Zhu's family is against their marriage; instead planning to marry Zhu to a rich man. Liang soon dies of a broken heart. When Zhu hears of her lover’s death, she rushes to his tomb. The tomb opens and Zhu jumps in. The two lovers are transformed into a pair of butterflies and are finally united, never to be separated again.
4. Qin Opera: " Huo Yan Ju”
Qinqiang is the native opera of Shanxi province. It is the oldest form of Chinese opera still in existence today. During its long history, more than 4000 different operas have been staged, more than any other form of Chinese opera.
Historians have conjectured that Qin Opera developed throughout the Qin, Han, Tang, Song, Ming and Qing dynasties, reaching its final form during the Tang dynasty. Also referred to as “Bangzi (or “clapper”) Opera” after the loud woodblock-like instrument (Bang Zi) used as accompaniment, Qin Opera evolved from diverse local folk songs and dance forms in the Shanxi and Gansu provinces. The arias of Qinqiang sound vehement, resonant and exaggerated, and unlike other forms of Chinese Opera, the falsetto voice is not used in the performance. In keeping with its folk-origins, Qin opera performances are often wildly theatrical, incorporating martial arts, juggling, acrobatics and even fire-spitting on stage.
Story of the Opera:
The story of “Huo Yan Ju” takes place in ancient feudal time during the Northern Song Dynasty at the northern frontier of the Great Wall and is a convoluted tale of family honor, war, deceit and political intrigue. In the end, all the false accusations are revealed and family honor is restored.
5. Peking Opera “Farewell My Concubine”
Peking Opera is one of China’s great national treasures and boasts a history of more than 200 years. Originating in the 55th year of the reign of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (1790), Peking Opera began when four big Huiban Opera troupes arrived in Beijing and combined their repertoire with that of Kunqu, Yiyang, Hanju, Qinqiang operas popular at that time within Beijing's theatrical circle. After a period of more than half a century of experimentation, what is recognized today as Peking opera finally emerged. Peking Opera has remained the most popular operatic form in China, and possesses a richness of repertoire and artists who have exercised a profound influence on Chinese culture.
Peking Opera is a synthesis of stylized acting, singing, dialogue, mime, acrobatic fighting and dancing all employed to represent a story or depict different characters and their feelings of happiness, anger, sorrow, fear or surprise. In Peking opera there are four main types of roles: Sheng (a male), Dan (a young female), Jing (the painted face male), and the Chou (the clown, played by either a male or female). The characters may be loyal or treacherous, beautiful or ugly, good or bad. Elaborate facial make up is used to reveal the character’s true nature.
Story of the Opera:
The opera known as “Farewell My Concubine” is more accurately translated “Hegemon King says Farewell to His Queen” and was based upon a an actual historical incident. Set during the Qin Dynasty, the opera tells the story of Xiang Yu (232 BC - 202 BC), the self-styled "Hegemon-King of Western Chu" who battled for the unification of China with Liu Bang, the founder of the powerful Han Dynasty. In the play, Xiang Yu is on the verge of being defeated by Liu Bang's forces. He calls to his horse and begs it to run away for its own safety. Against his wishes, the horse refuses. He then calls for his favorite concubine, Yu Ji. Realizing there is no escape, she begs to die alongside her master, but he refuses to let her do so. Afterwards, as he is distracted, Yu Ji commits suicide with Xiang Yu's own sword.
As with “Butterfly Lovers”, “Farewell My Concubine” has been the inspiration for numerous plays, novels, films and even a newly composed western-style opera, and is one of the most noble and tragic stories of World Theater.
6. Huagu Opera: “Woodcutter Liuhai”
Huagu Opera originated in Hunan province around 200 years ago and developed from the folk songs and story telling of farmers and peasants. Unlike other forms of Chinese opera, Huagu Opera originally had only two roles: the Xiao Chou, (a young male clown) and the Xiao Dan, (a vivacious young girl) – both originally played by men. Huagu later developed in to a three-role drama, adding the Xiao Sheng role (a young male). Owing to its earthy and sometimes even ribald content and use of vernacular language, Huagu Opera was suppressed by feudal governors. This caused Huagu Opera troupes to begin performing other types of opera as a shield for their Huagu Opera performances. Following the founding of the People's Republic of China, Huagu Opera hasflourished and today, there are over 400 Huagu Opera plays in the repertoire, a number of which like “Butterfly Lovers” and “Farewell My Concubine” have been made into movies.
Story of the Opera:
In contrast to the noble tragedy of “Farewell My Concubine”, “Woodcutter Liuhai” proudly displays its folksy roots and earthy good-humor. The story tells the tale of the poor but hard-working woodcutter Liuhai, his blind mother and a well-intentioned but mischievous Fox Spirit that takes on the form of a beautiful young noble woman. All ends happily when the Fox Spirit grants Liuhai three wishes and he is rewarded for his diligence and hard work.
7. Huangmei Opera: “The Cowherd and the Weaving Maid”
Huangmei Opera originated in Huangmei county, Hubei province as a folk art performed by traveling troupes of actors but later flourished and developed into a mature theatrical form when brought to Anhui province. Generally known as “Huangmei Aria” or “Caicha Opera”, Huangmei Opera reached maturity in the late 18th century, evolving from local theater and folk songs, most notably tea-picking songs and other work songs to create a dramatic form that aimed to express pointed social commentary, the disparity between the rich and the poor and the hope for a happy and peaceful life. Huangmei Opera is renowned for its sweet melodies, literate lyrics, graceful movements, beautiful costumes and sets.
Story of the Opera:
The story of “The Cowherd and the Weaving Maid” comes from an ancient folk tale that is still commemorated as “Chinese Valentine’s Day” and tells the love story of the Cowherd Niu Lang and the celestial fairy Zhi Nu. The two meet and fall in love and lead a happy life until the God of the Western Heavens finds them out and orders the Queen Mother of the Western Heavens to bring Zhi Nu back. Niu Lang follows her into the sky but the Queen Mother creates a vast river to separate them for ever, their only contact coming from their tears borne on the waves of the river. But once a year all the magpies in the world take pity on them and fly up into heaven to form a bridge so the lovers may be together for a single night, on the seventh night of the seventh moon or "Qi Xi" (“Night of Sevens”). On this night, young (and not-so-young) Chinese lovers will meet under the stars and watch for Niu Lang’s and Zhi Nu’s reunion.
8. Lu Opera: Lady General Mu Takes Command
Lu Opera is a relatively recent development in Chinese opera. While its origins are in the folk and improvised theater of Anhui and Shandong province, modern Lu Opera emerged in its final form during the last century. Two basic types of Lu Opera are currently performed; Solo Opera and Serial Opera, often performed in “chapters” or self-contained acts. Most Lu Operas utilize a contemporary setting but several serial operas draw upon the great epics and legends of the past for their inspiration.
Story of the Opera:
During the Northern Song Dynasty the northern border of China was constantly invaded by the Khitans (Liao). Yang Jiye, was a famous general and one of the great heroes in resisting the Khitan invasions and his deeds were immortalized in numerous folk tales and operas. Stories of Yang’s exploits were eventually developed into the legend of “The Generals of the Yangs”, an epic account of several generations of the Yang family. “Mu Guiying Taking Command” tells the story of the lady general Mu Guiying, During the most recent Khitan invasion, General Mu is asked by the Song Emperor to once again defend the homeland, but she refuses out of her resentment against the imperial court’s petty treatment of the Yang family. Mu is finally persuaded by Grandma She, Yang Jiye’s widow and Mu finally accepts the appointment to lead the Song troops to victory against the invaders.
9.Chao Opera: Su Liuniang
Chao Opera is one of the local forms of opera performed throughout Southeastern China and is very popular throughout Guangdong, and Fujian provinces, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Southeastern Asia. Chao Opera is believed to have developed from ancient Nanxi (Southern drama-style) Opera around 500 years ago during the late Song and Yuan dynasties. As Chaozhou developed, many features of local folk song and dance were introduced, giving it its distinctive character. Unique to Chaozhou is the use of a chorus, skillful fan dances and acrobatic displays. The traditional plays of Chao Opera primarily come from the popular legends and Zaju plays (poetic dramas set to music) of Southern Opera as well as local folk stories. On May 20, 2006, Chao Opera was listed among the first group of National Intangible Cultural Heritage by the State Department.
Story of the Opera:
The opera Su Liuniang (also known as “Tao-hua Crosses the River”) most likely began as traditional folk play that was later developed and refined to eventually become an extremely involved epic in ten acts. The opera tells the story of how the lovely and sensitive Su Liuniang escapes from an arranged marriage with the help of her clever maid, Tao-hua and a local ferryman. The simple plot is adorned with numerous set pieces and comic characterizations that contribute to make Su Liuniang an enduringly popular staple in the Chaozhou repertoire.
10. Cantonese Opera：The Princess Chang Ping
Cantonese Opera ranks as one of the most popular and influential of all forms of Chinese Opera and can be found around the world in virtually every large Chinese community. Cantonese Opera has maintained its popularity over the centuries, and its pageantry and flamboyant performance style continues to thrill fans everywhere. Many of today’s popular martial arts actors received their training In Cantonese Opera schools.
While there is some debate regarding the origins of Cantonese opera, it thought to have begun in northern China and slowly migrated to the southern province of Guangdong in the late 13th century. There it interacted with variants of the ancient Nanxi (Southern drama-style) Opera, finally developing into the earliest forms of Cantonese Opera at the end of the Ming Dynasty.
Cantonese opera shares many characteristics with other Chinese theatre genres. Commentators often take pride in the idea that all Chinese theatre styles are but minor variations on a pan-Chinese music-theater tradition, and that the basic features or principles are consistent from one local performance form to another. Thus, music, singing, martial arts, acrobatics and acting are all included in the operatic spectacle. While the plots of many operas are based on Chinese history, classic literature and myths, Chinese Opera serves as a forum and a vehicle to explore the human condition and frequently offer stinging social commentaries.
Story of the Opera:
Set during the turbulent end of the Ming dynasty, Princess Chang Ping is a sweeping romantic tragedy that tells the story of star-crossed lovers Chang Ping and her betrothed, the scholar Zhou Shixian. While under siege from the invading Manchu, Emperor Chang orders all the women in the palace to kill them selves for honor’s sake. Zhou Shixian intercedes and attempts to rescue his beloved but the emperor then strangles his daughter and then hangs himself.
The princess survives the attack and is rescued, eventually ending up at a Buddhist nunnery. One day, while traveling in the countryside, Zhou Shixian spots Chang Ping and the lovers are finally reunited. Eventually, their existence comes to the attention of the new Qing emperor, who offers them asylum and allows them marry and live under the protection of the new dynasty. Chang Ping and Zhou Shixian know that they would only serve as figureheads to allow the invaders to legitimate their takeover, but go along with the plan just long enough to secure honorable burials for their families and then, drink poison, as an act of honor to defend both family and national honor.
著名作曲家，创立了“伶歌”的演唱形式。在戏曲、曲艺、 歌舞、 影视音乐、歌词写作、乐队指挥等方面皆有建树。参与多种音乐艺术形式的策划 、创作、指挥。是中国目前跨领域较广、技术较全面、知名度较高的一位音乐家。
About the Composer:
Meng Qinghua, is one of the most highly-regarded composers of Neo-Traditional Chinese music. Renowned for his modern orchestral re-interpretation of Chinese Theatre songs, a new musical form the composer describes as “Lingge” (literally, “Eloquent Songs”), Meng has been at the forefront of creating vital new works for the concert hall and musical stage, including the modern folk opera, “Brother, You're Heading West” and the award-winning Beijing Opera television series, “The Flaming Mountain.” Meng’s recorded works include the critically acclaimed “Dream of an Opera” (Rhymoi RXRCD 004) and “The Song of Songs” (Rhymoi RXRCD-008). Meng Qinghua is a recognized authority on the operatic and music theatre traditions of China. His colorful orchestrations, faithfulness to traditional Chinese idioms and imaginative blending of Western and Chinese instrumentation has attracted many of the outstanding young instrumental and vocal virtuosos to work with him as artistic collaborators. His music has received numerous national awards, including the Ministry of Culture’s Wenhua (“National Culture”) Music Prize and the National of the “Five-One Project” Award (an annual prize, established in 1992 to promote “the development of spiritual civilization in China” awarded to outstanding achievements in the area of drama, television productions, books and scholarship).
About the Sound Engineer:
The distinguished recording and sound Li Xiaopei graduated from the recording engineering department of the Beijing Film Institute, and is presently the senior chief sound engineer of CCTV. For more than 35 years Li Xiaopei has worked as principle sound technician and engineer for nearly ever facet of China;s entertainment industry including the widely watched CCTV “Spring Festival” broadcasts, in addition to being one of the most in-demand sound designers for many large scale television productions. In addition to his work for CCTV, Li Xiaopei is active as a commentator, guest lecturer and technical advisor for many broadcast concerts, movies and television shows.
Li Xiaopei is particularly famous for his recordings of folk music and percussion music. He has developed his own unique perspective on how to dynamically capture the subtle flavors of ethnic music, especially capturing the characteristic contours of Chinese folk instruments.
Throughout his career, Li has received numerous awards including “Best Recording” in the Chinese Star Awards, China Music TV Best Recording Award (Engineering) and the Chinese Television Artists Association award for Best Sound Engineering. Li Xiaopei has received numerous international honors including being the first sound engineer from China to appear on “The Absolute Sound” audiophile recording charts.
Li Xiaopei’s published works include the CD recordings "Sound of Rhythm", "Poems of Thunder," "Master of Chinese Percussion", "Bamboo Music" and "Dream of an Opera", "Forever Red", "The Song of Songs" and others.
Surround Sound recordings for films include: "Ga Da Mei Lin”, "Big Shot’s Funeral" or "The Road Home," "Green Tea", "Peacock" , "Nanjing, Nanjing" and many, many others.
音乐制作人, 美国格莱美协会会员 , 创立中国声誉卓著的音乐品牌“瑞鸣音乐”，并任制作人，中国金唱片奖最佳音乐人特别奖获得者。从事音乐创作、制作多年，获海内外重要音乐媒体高度评价，部分作品被海外唱片公司收录出版，所制作的音乐作品在高端音乐市场得到较大认同，并远销海外，销售成绩斐然。担任制作人的唱片及音乐作品曾多次获“美国独立音乐大奖”“中国金唱片奖”“中华优秀出版奖”“华语音乐传媒大奖”等百余个奖项，在中国城市广播联盟评选“中国十大发烧唱片”中数次入选，作品多次入选“CD圣经”等海内外专业评比。因多年与国际音乐制作及出版行业的密切合作经历，音乐创作理念及制作手段具有国际化的开阔视角。
About the Producer:
Ye Yunchuan，Producer, composer, arranger, graphic designer, Grammy member, and the founder of one of China’s most prestigious audiophile recording labels, Rhymoi Music, Ye Yunchuan is further distinguished as the first Full Voting Member of the American Grammy Awards (The National Academy for Recording Arts and Science – NARAS) representing the Chinese music industry. He is, without any question, one of the rising stars in China’s growing music industry. Prior to his current activities, Ye established an international reputation, as a composer and producer, being awarded several American Independent Music Awards, Chinese Golden Album Awards, numerous rave reviews in CD Bible (China) in addition to being included on China City Radio Association’s “Ten Hottest Albums” roundup. Years of cooperation with international music production and publication circles has provided him with a truly global perspective. As founder of his own recording label, Rhymoi Music, he is committed to establishing new standards of excellence for recorded music in China.
Rhymoi Music recordings are immediately identifiable - with their innovative approaches to programming, world-class musical and artistic standards, beauty of presentation and packaging, cultural relevance, and their conscious desire to introduce the treasures of Chinese music to an international audience - Rhymoi Music is without peer. With his deep commitment to the traditions and national music of his homeland, Ye Yunchuan is committed to building new and ever more creative and beautiful bridges between the musical heritage of China and the musical traditions of the world. Ye Yunchuan continues to realize his vision with each new recording.
板胡/马骨胡/二弦： 姜克美 中国广播民族乐团演奏家
笛/箫： 戴亚 中央音乐学院教师演奏家
Banhu/Ma guhu/er xian:Jiang Kemei
Erhu/ Gaohu: Deng Jiandong
Jinghu: Zhang Shunxiang
Qin: Zhao Jiazhen
Di /Xiao/Shakuhachi: Du Cong/ Dai Ya
Guzheng: Chang Jing
Suona: Zhou Dongchao
Zhong ruan/ Liuqin: Wang Jia
Chinese Percussion:Li Congnong
Cello: Liu Man
Tubular Bell: Liu Qi Ping
Western Percussion:Li Jingjing
String Orchestra: 24 musicians from CPO and CNSO including Huang Lijie etc.
英文文案／翻译： Joshua Cheek
Producer: Ye Yunchuan
Executive Producer: Ye Yunchuan
Arranged by: Meng Qinghua
Recording Engineer: Li Xiaopei
Assistant Recording Engineers: Wang Heng Lu Nannan
Chinese Copywriter: Yang Qian
English Copywriter: Joshua Cheek
Translation Assistant：Jin Zhongmei
Cover Photography：Zhang Junhua
Cover actress: Zhao Qun
Photography: Xiao Ye
Graphic Design: Total Viewfinder
Recording Venue: The 480 square Meter Recording Studio of CCTV
Mastering: JVC-XRCD Mastering Center (Japan) Pauler Acoustics (Germany)
Produced by: Rhymoi Music. Co., Ltdwww.rhymoi.com
Copyright Statement: The music and arrangements appearing on this album have been licensed in accordance with the copyright laws of China. If there are any errors, please contact us.
1.昆曲 《玉簪记》Kunqu Opera: A Jade Hairpin
2.吉剧 《桃李梅·三放参姑娘》Ji Opera: "Tao Li Mei • “Ginseng Girl”
3.越剧《梁山伯与祝英台》Zhejiang Yue Opera: The Butterfly Lovers
4.秦腔《火焰驹》Qin Opera: The Flame Colt
5.京剧 《霸王别姬·三家店》Peking Opera: Farewell My Concubine • Sanjiadian
6.花鼓戏《刘海砍樵》Huagu Opera: Woodcutter Liuhai
7.黄梅戏 《牛郎织女》Huangmei Opera: The Cowherd and the Weaving Maid
8.吕剧 《穆桂英挂帅》Lu Opera: Lady General Mu Takes Command
9.潮剧《苏六娘》Chao Opera: Su Liuniang
10.粤剧 《帝女花》Cantonese Opera: The Princess Chang Ping